DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL ASSETS LOSSES: EVIDENCE FROM SWAT ARMED CONFICT
Conflict has been a common feature throughout the world in its long history. Pakistan is no exception to such undesirable incidences and has faced conflicts in one form or the other since its independence. In 2009 Pakistan Army launched an operation against the rebellions in Swat and about 2.5 million of people became refugees and migrated to the neighboring safe places. The study was undertaken with the objective to determinants of assets losses during conflict and the rehabilitation strategies of the people in Swat area. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect the data. Data was collected from two different types of conflict affected areas through structure questionnaire. The study revealed that conflict reduced the average number of livestock by 26 percent in the fully affected sample areas and 19 percent in the partially affected sample areas. Monthly income from the sale of livestock products decreased by 54% in the fully affected sample areas and 16.5% in the partially affected areas whereas the average annual income from the sale of live animals decreased by 62% in the fully affected and 5.5% in the partially affected tehsils. The number of horticultural trees declined by 34% and 3.3% on the average in the fully and partially affected sample areas due to unavailability of inputs and lack of proper care. Operational land holdings decreased by 5.5% and farm employment decreased by 6.45%. There was a significant difference in assets losses during conflict subject to education level, farming experience and number of adult male family members. As a rehabilitation strategy male migration to work abroad was increased by 50 and 100 percent in the fully and partially affected tehsils respectively.
Key words: Conflict, Swat, household assets, livestock losses, trees losses.